S.L.Ahulwalia’s view: “A poster is a pictorial device designed to attract attention and communicate a story, a fact, an idea, or an image rapidly and clearly.”
Good’s Dictionary of Education: A poster is a “placard, usually pictorial or decorative, utilizing an emotional appeal to convey a message aimed at reinforcing an attitude or urging a course of action”.
The poster can be defined as a graphic representation of some strong emotional appeal that is carried through a combination of graphic aids like pictures, cartoons lettering and other visual arts on a placard. It aims for conveying the specific message, teaching a particular thing, giving a general idea etc. Posters exert a great influence on the observer.
1. Brevity: Use of minimum words, i.e., four or five.
2. Idea: Idea or a feeling should be put in original form.
3. Simplicity of lay-out: It refers to the arrangement of the elements of the poster.
4. Efficient use of colors: (i) Use bold illustrations, (ii) Avoid fancy lettering style, (iii) Proper use of color,
5. Makes the poster more attractive.
1. Presents a single idea or a subject forcefully.
2. Publicizes important school and community events and projects.
3. Adds atmosphere to the class-room.
4. Captures attention by some attractive feature and thus convey the message attractively and quickly.
5. Motivates the class.
6. Strong lasting impression.
7. Satisfies the viewer emotionally and aesthetically.
1. Poster conveys a single theme.
2. The lettering if not attractive and accurate, makes the poster illegible.
3. If smudge marks makes the posters unattractive and futile.
1. Decide the theme.
2. Decide the most suitable words to provide a title or a slogan.
3. Sketch some layouts and decide o n the best.
4. Gather all needed material to prepare the poster.
5. Prepare the lettering.
6. Add desired objectives.
7. Give the finishing touches and erase the smudge marks.
Flash cards are used for the presentation of an idea in the form of posters, pictures, words and sentences. A single card or a whole series may be flashed in front of the class. They aim to develop the power of observation, identification, quick comprehension and retention.
1. Flash cards are small compact cards.
2. Made out of cardboard or any other thick material.
3. Simplest of all aids.
1. The pictorial contents presented in a series are easily recognized by the group.
2. These are flashed before the class one by one to bring home an idea.
3. Communication of new ideas requires repetitive study methods, drill-work and review of the discussion.
4. Provides pupils with a systematic approach to drill.
5. Helpful to teach recognition by sight.
6. Easy to carry.
1. If used for a prolonged period it becomes boring for the students.
2. The students cannot get the complete view of the concept, as the points are flashed one by one.
Graph is defined as a visual representation of numerical data. Graph is fundamentally a tool for expressing number relationships, which is much easier to visualize than can be done if the statement were made only in words and figures. It offers a judicious technique for analyzing, comparing and prophesying of facts which are vital to an intelligent study of a problem.
Characteristics of graphs:
1. Graphs are by nature a summarizing device.
2. Effective tool for comparisons and contrast or for presenting complicated facts.
3. Made according to exact specifications and depict specifically quantitative data for analysis, interpretation or comparison.
4. Graphs, being symbolic are abstract in character.
5. Self explanatory and simple.
6. Regarded as flat pictures which employ dots, lines or pictures to visualize numerical and statistical data to show statistics or relationships.
Kinds of graphs
• Line graph
• Bar graph
• Circle or pie graph
• Pictorial graph
• Flannel graph
Steps in Presenting Graphs, Maps, Diagrams
Graphs, maps, diagrams re potent spark plugs because they can be ignited at the crucial moments. To ensure success the following steps may be followed:
1. Prepare students
2. Present the aid
3. Apply information
4. Test students after the aid has been presented
5. Review or reshow the illustration if the previous step reveals misunderstanding
Uses of Graphs
1. Awareness: The teacher should be well aware of the method of drawing of graph in a neat and accurate manner.
2. Neatness: The graph should be neat, clean and artistic. It should be of good quality.
3. Accuracy: The scales and the measurement of the graph should be accurate and intelligible to the students.
4. Drawing and paper: The graph should be properly drawn. The graph paper should be good. The pencil that is used should also be good.
5. Hints: The hints should be properly explained. The marks on the graph should be such that the students may know them by themselves.
6. Blackboard: The teacher may draw a graph on the black board.
Limitations of Graphs
1. If the graph is not drawn neatly, it looses it purpose.
2. The teacher should be adept at drawing the graphs and presenting it properly to the students.
3. Graphs cannot be preserved for a long time if the quality of the paper is not good.
4. Graphs will not be self explanatory, if proper hints and scale are not given.
Maps constitute an indispensable aid in teaching many subjects like geography, history, economics and social studies. The learning of these subjects becomes unreal, inadequate and incomplete without map media. A resourceful teacher will turn the fear of map into the genuine love by motivating the students. This, however, presupposes the invariable uses of maps at every possible opportunity by the teacher in the class-room, and the possession of individual atlases (a combination of maps) by the students. Every student should also know certain elementary aspects of map preparation such as copying, enlarging and reducing, symbolizing, coloring, and preparation of hey. Many students develop aversion for maps because they do not know skills relating to map preparation.
Maps are called as “Encyclopedia of Man’s Existence”. The map as a record of spatial concepts tells a story as nothing else can. A map is an accurate representation plane surface in the form of a diagram drawn to scale, the details of boundaries of whole of earth’s surface, continents, countries etc. Geographical details like location of mountains, rivers, altitude of f a place, contours of the earth surface and important locations can also be represented, taught and learnt accurately. Maps depict the climatic conditions, natural conditions, location etc. of certain countries and continents.
Purpose or Uses of Maps
1. To depict geographical features of earth’s surface and to understand the position of earth in the universe.
2. To show relationship between places
3. To furnish information concerning distances, directions, shapes and sizes.
4. To clarify descriptive materials.
5. To reduce the scale of areas and distances and thus bring the abstract concepts of size, distance and directions into the region of reality.
6. To understand the lines-boundary lines, lines of communication, lines indication the rivers, contours, meridians and parallels.
7. To understand the colors, tints, shadows, symbols in a map or globe.
8. To understand the distinction between various types of maps such as relief, political, distribution maps.
Richard E. Servey states that maps can be used in a wide variety of ways to express many different statements which are listed below:-
1. With color as a basic symbol
2. Through the use of conventional or invented symbols
3. Rearranged maps
4. Three dimensional maps
Limitations of Maps
1. Maps should indicate accurate, well planned, well printed, wall mounted and durable.
2. Many of the maps are not visible to all the students in the class.
3. The teacher often does not take effort to teach map reading to the students.
4. Each type of map should have the relevant details.
5. If the lettering is not taken care of, it will prove futile.
By projected aids we mean those aids where a bright light is passed through a transparent picture, and by means of a lens, an enlarged picture is thrown or projected on the screen. Projected aids mainly fall into three groups, viz; opaque projections, transparent still projections and cine projections.
Among the various types of materials available still projection, slides and film strips are the
foremost visual aids. They are of great value in teaching. Slide Projector or Diascope popularly known as Magic Lantern, is an optical aid to the process of teaching. It is used for projecting pictures from a transparent slide on a wall or screen. As it is used to project slides, i.e., why it is called a slide projector. It helps in showing the magnified image of the slide. When the figure or illustration is very small and it is required that the whole class should see it clearly, a transparent slid of this small figure is prepared. The slide is placed inverted into the slide carrier part of the magic lantern (slide projector). The slide projector projects its erect image on the well or screen by enlarging its dimension and making the vision more sharp and clear. If he slide or film strip is colored then it would be more attractive. The slide projector is useful for small as well as large groups.
1. Educational information: The slide projector has immense educational value because of
variety of information may be given using maps, drawings, diagrams, photographs etc. The subject can be taught with detail and clarity. To make it more effective a tap- recorder can also be used along with the slide projector. The teacher records the narration in a tape-recorder and the latter is hooked up with the slide projector in such a way as to give the necessary commentary about the slide without the help of the teacher.
2. Motivational force: It arouses attention and interest of the students. A projected image has great power to hold attention of the audience for a long time. They can easily motivate the students for better learning.
3. Easy to transport: Slide projector is light and easy to transport.
4. Easy to use: It is very easy to use. It is a simple device of showing the magnified objects on the screen. It can be operated and focused by remote control.
5. Picture on the screen: The picture on the screen can be allowed to remain there as long as the students wish.
6. Interesting: The whole activity is interesting.
7. Economical in time: There is not wastage of time and energy.
8. Not costly: Slide projector is not costly. Any school can afford to have it.
9. Non fragile: It is not easily broken.
10. Non inflammable: It is non inflammable.
1. Not suitable for all type of material: Every type of material cannot be projected by the slide projector.
2. Not excessive use: The glass slides are becoming costlier now. It may not be put to excessive use.
Slides have proved very useful for teaching various subjects. It helps the teacher to demonstrate different types of figures, diagrams, pictures related to science, social sciences, mathematics and various other subjects through the slides.
It is an improvement upon slide projector (magic lantern). The device may be used as a slide projector or as a film strip projector. Instead of using different slide for different topics or more slides for one topic, one strip or piece of still film is prepared. Slides produced on films are called film strips. A film strip consists of a strip of cellulose acetate film 16mm or
35mm wide and length 2 to 5 feet. It usually consists of 40 to 100 separate pictures related to a particular subject, topic or theme. These pictures may be connected with series of drawings, photographs, diagrams or combination of these. Such strip or a piece of still film serves the same purpose as served by a number of slides.
There is not much difference between a slide projector and a film strip projector. In a slide projector we use separate slide while in a film strip, a strip of film (having ling strip of many slides) is exhibited. The film strip projector is a recent development and it is growing to be a more popular means of pictorial representation. Various commercial firms sell such film
strips readymade for different topics of different subjects for different age groups. Film strips are also available on loan, free of charge from Central Film Library, Central Institute of Educational Technology, NCERT, New Delhi.
1. It is easy to operate.
2. A frame may be held on screen as long as it is required.
3. Strips of educative value according to special needs are available.
4. By reversing the operating knob previously exhibited frames can be illustrated again for reference.
5. It draws the attention of the students.
6. Varieties of information may be given.
7. Now film strips with commentary recorded on tapes are available.
8. The teacher can also tape his comments and play the tape synchronizing it with the frame of the film strip.
9. Film strips are light weight and easy to carry.
10. Even a low voltage lamp can serve the purpose while using film strips.
11. With every film strip projector, a 2″ x 2″ slide attachment is also provided and the same projector can be used for projection slides also.
12. Its use does not restrict the normal flow of conversation between the teacher and the class.
13. The numbered film strips prove advantageous to the learner, especially when one or two students use them in independent work. Numbering makes it possible to locate a frame to be reshown.
14. Since film strips present the pictures in a fixed sequence, they provide a structure for the subject.
15. Film strips provide an economical means of presenting information.
Film strips lack audition. Teacher has to do the work of commentator. Just showing a film strip is not enough.
Overhead Projector (O.H.P.)
The Overhead projector has opened a new dimension in communication. It represents a lot of improvement over magic lantern, slide and film projectors.
The name ‘Overhead projector’ comes from the fact that the projected image is behind and over the head of the speaker/teacher. In overhead projection, a transparent visual is placed on a horizontal stage on top of light source. The light passes through this transparency and then is reflected at 90° angle on the screen at eh back of the speaker.
1. Vertical projection: It contains an area of vertical projection besides the straight horizontal path of the light available with the usual projectors.
2. Horizontal path: The path of the light rays is again changed to a horizontal one by mirror placed at 45° angle and continues over the shoulder of the teacher to the screen.
3. Large aperture: It contains a large aperture of the size 20 X 20 cms or 25 X 25 cms. For placing the slides and other visual materials.
4. Focusing of the image: It provides for the focusing of the image on the screen by vertical movements of the projection head containing he objective lens and mirror.
5. Flow of air: There is a provision of a constant flow of air pass the lamp by a cooling fan in the base of the projector.
Uses of O.H.P.
1. Large image: It projects a very large image on the screen form a minimum of projection distance.
2. Face the class: In this projector the image is projected over the shoulder of the teacher.
Therefore, he can face the class at all times. He can maintain eye contact with the students. It helps the teacher to keep watch on the class as or indicates points of importance on the transparency.
3. Lighted room: O.H.P. can operate in an illuminated room. There is no need of darkening the room. It enables the teacher to develop a ‘circuit of understanding’ by watching expression of others.
4. Bright image: The lens and mirror arrangement in overhead projector makes it possible to have a bright image even in a well lighted room.
5. Simple operation: It is simple, easy and convenient to operate the overhead projector. It does not need separate projector operator or the instructor. It permits the teacher to face the class and at the same time operate the machine. Slides can be changed quite easily.
6. Light weight: The light weight of the equipment makes it portable.
7. Class control: The teacher can maintain complete class control and interest in a lesson by turning a switch on or off. He, while sitting on hi desk, can indicate specific items on the screen buy location them with his pencil on the slides.
8. Process on the screen: By putting a piece of ground glass over the slide space the teacher can draw a diagram sketch with pencil or wax pencil and the class can watch the process on the screen. He can also place sheets of transparent plastic over the slides for writing on them. Thus the overhead projector permits the teacher to use the screen as a blackboard.
9. Large slide: Due to largeness of its aperture it may allow the use of slides of the size 20
X 20 cms or 25 X 25 cms. It may facilitate the preparation of art work for slides.